By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. It only takes a minute to sign up. I've found several suggestions online, but frankly, they are incomprehensible to me and seem contradictory of one another:.

First, a definition of "take off" : The length of pipe to be removed taken off such that a pipe and a fitting make a specific length. The term is a concept shorthand used by pipefitters and plumbers. This is not the same as a material takeoff, which is a list of all materials needed for a project.

Take-offs in general are specific to pipe construction PVC, copper, etc.

As suggested by bcworkz, tables for a given diameter and style of pipe are the best method for an accurate measurement. The formula listed in your link. Thanks Daniel. The unit is inch according to the unit of pipe diameter D and any pipe diameter is applicable in formulas. The Picture is only geometrical prove to have a better perspective.

See below picture with more details. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. How do I calculate the takeoff for a 45 degree elbow joint? Ask Question. Asked 6 years, 11 months ago. Active 3 years, 9 months ago. Viewed 38k times. Wouldn't it depend on the particular fitting being used? Such ratio calculations may give you an approximately useful value, but there are variations between manufacturers, and of course fittings.

I wouldn't trust anything if real accuracy is needed except actually measuring or using the manufacturer's dimension tables. Active Oldest Votes. HerrBag HerrBag Daniel Griscom 5, 11 11 gold badges 25 25 silver badges 38 38 bronze badges. Jalal Pakdaman Jalal Pakdaman 1.

## Formulas for Calculating Conduit & Pipe Bends

Hi, Jalal. Thanks for the improvements, but we prefer that you edit an answer to improve it, rather than creating a new, improved answer. I've marked your other answer as a duplicate. And, I condensed the image a bit. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.Technical Resources. NOTICE — The following engineering spreadsheets have been developed to assist in the design of typical engineering practices.

The designer should verify that the design complies with NRCS standards and that the standard applies to the site. The designer must understand the assumptions and calculations contained in the spreadsheets and is responsible for their use.

Most if not all spreadsheets contain macros. Many engineering spreadsheets are available for use. These documents require Microsoft Excel. For more information on the Wisconsin Engineering Spreadsheets, email scott.

Natural Resources Conservation Service Wisconsin. Stay Connected. Loading Tree Includes a Help tab.

Conversion factors are included. Automates Job Sheet calculations. Warnings are provided for rates that may cause drying shrinkage cracking. This spreadsheet could be modified for cross sections of other features. Analysis is also based on water and culvert elevation.

Also aids in design of culvert inlet protection. Able to accommodate sloping land, upstream and downstream berms, and core trenches. Also does calculations with percentages for compaction and settlement. Read the help sheet for Ksat units explanation.

There is no Help tab. If peak flows of the watershed are unknown, a copy of Chapter 2 of the Engineering Field Handbook is included. Up to six separate pipelines or spur lines can be accommodated.To get an accurate lumber calculation, you have to consider your fence's length and design. Enter your preferences below and then, use ImproveNet to connect with an experienced fencing contractor near you.

When many of us picture the American Dream, a wood fence is surely in the portrait. Beyond adding that sense of privacy we all want in our home, a new fence, no matter the material, increases the value of your home, deters intruders, keeps pets and children nearby and helps eliminate outside noise. Why you install a fence is easy. How much wood fencing you need is another obstacle all together. Luckily, you've come to the right place. Use our wood fence calculator above to determine exactly how much wood you need for your new fence.

Once you enter all your specs, you'll see how many post, rails and boards are required. Of course, these numbers will go a long way in determining your final wood fence installation cost.

As you can see above, there are a lot of factors at play. To make it as easy as possible to calculate how much lumber you need for your new wood fence, keep the following fencing basics in mind:.

If you're brand new to a wood fence installation, follow the steps below to ensure you buy the correct quantity of all materials:. Preparation: Check with your city so you know exactly where you can and can not install the fence. Also, see if you have to pull permits. Then, call so they can mark your property and utility lines. This ensures you don't cut electricity for the entire block.

Sketch the Fence: Lay out your fence with stakes at each corner and string in between. Then, use a long tape measure to determine your total wood fence length. Number of Posts: As we said earlier, posts should be no longer than 8 feet apart from each other.

Some homeowners go with 16 feet, but if you do, your fence will not be as sturdy. If you go with 8 feet, divide your fence length by 8 to get the total number of posts. Therefore, a foot fence would require 12 posts. Always round down. Therefore, if you're installing a 6-foot fence, make sure your posts are 9 feet high multiplied by 1. If you're installing a 4-foot fence, make sure your posts are 6 feet high.

Once you determine your post height, multiple that by the number of posts to get the total linear feet of post material.This process is known as takeoff — or material takeoff MTO — and is an essential part of the estimating process. For a small one-off job, an experienced builder should be able to estimate the materials required in his or her head. A more thorough process is necessary for major construction projects, however.

It is important to approach the task in a methodical manner in order to achieve the most accurate approximation possible. As well as providing a precise estimate for yourself and your client, this will also help the job run smoother on the ground by ensuring that your workers or contractors have everything they need.

It is worth noting that, while a thorough takeoff will improve your estimate, there will be other factors to take into account. These include your office overhead costs, shifts in market prices for materials, and various other expenses.

What to count. Essentially, the takeoff should quantify all the materials needed to complete the building, structure or project. This does not include assets such as tools and equipment, which are also required to do the job but should include all the physical materials that go into the project. This could be raw materials such as concrete, timber or sand, as well as prefabricated materials; bricks, lengths of electrical cable, plumbing pipes, and light fixtures.

### How to Master the Takeoff In Construction Estimating

Looking to improve your estimating skills? In addition to counting the materials, the MTO should also specify the type of material required. This could be the grade of steel or the type of electrical cable, for example. Different contractors might have a diverse range of requirements when it comes to compiling their takeoff. A roofing specialist will use different materials than a concrete contractor, for example, but the principles of takeoff are broadly the same.

There are four key types of measurement required for the takeoff in most construction projects. The estimator will need to count the numbers required for specific individual items. These could be anything from the number of light fixtures required for a given building to the number of studs necessary to finish the project.

Some items, such as cables and pipes, are measured primarily by length. You will also need to know other dimensions, such as diameter, but this information will be included with the type of material required. You might need to allow for extra amounts for elements such as drops for switches, receptacles, and panels when measuring electrical cable. Some materials will require a measurement of the surface area.

This could include elements such as flooring, cladding, or an estimate of the amount of paint needed for a given structure. Measurements of volume may be needed for some materials, such as the amount of asphalt used per yard or the concrete required to lay a foundation.

There are two main types of takeoffs. However, it is crucial that the estimator be able to accurately read blueprints and plans for the type of work being quantified general building plans, electrical and plumbing schematics, etc. As well as diagrammatic representations of the dimensions of the project, these will contain various symbols and notes that may indicate the types of materials required.

Working from these plans, you can use colored pens, pencils, or markers to distinguish the different items and types of material specified. As paper blueprints can be expensive and time-consuming to produce, many estimators are adopting new technology to perform their estimates. You can then transfer the quantities and materials to spreadsheets or use various preprinted forms and worksheets that can help you to work out the exact material costs for each component.The Pipe Calculator is evolving to provide more and more information at your finger tips.

We will fix it. Enter your info and comments there as well as request to receive updates on existing and new products to improve your workflow Please note we make no claim or responsibility in the values generated and the user takes sole responsibility when using this application.

Thank you. Updated the 90 Odd Angle Fitting Calculation. The Set Data button was not working for some users. I typically default to a scratch pad and using good ol fashion formulas, but I use this app to make sure my numbers correlate.

If I'm in a hurry and I have a little play, I'll use the app without hesitation. Not at all what I thought it was and very confusing to use. I'm a pipefitter helper and with this app I know I'm well on my way to moving up on the latter. The curator of this app is also very helpful and quick at responding any questions requests and issues you might have Highly recommended, must have if your in the pipe trades Requires iOS 9.

Compatible with iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. App Store Preview.

Description The Pipe Calculator is evolving to provide more and more information at your finger tips. Nov 29, Version 2. Ratings and Reviews See All. Information Seller Kevin Morneault. Size Category Productivity. Compatibility Requires iOS 9. Languages English. App Support. Family Sharing With Family Sharing set up, up to six family members can use this app.

Right Angle. Piping and Flange Handbook. Pipe Tools. Pipe Saddle Layout Calculator. Pipe Source.An inexpensive scientific calculator and an angle finder are the only additional tools required.

This radius will vary depending on the outside diameter of the tube, the wall thickness, and the angle at which the tube is to be bent. It is important to understand the different elements of a bend in order to make accurate calculations. Using the same variables as above, the standard dimension ratio SDR of a pipe can be calculated thusly:. A simple way to determine the center line radius of a bend of a specific angle is calculate a full circle, then divide that number by to find the measurement of one degree.

Then, use this formula:. For example, if your die creates a 2. The black line represents an offset bend in a tube; the red triangle represents the triangular geometry this offset creates. The relatively simple math formulas of sine, cosine, and tangent can be used to determine the angles of the triangle, and, therefore, the necessary angles of your pipe bend s.

Most scientific calculators and even the calculators built into smart phones have these functions. View information about bending conduit using a bender and the deducts and multipliers charts.

Created with Sketch. Toggle menu Login or Sign Up 0. Elements of a Bend It is important to understand the different elements of a bend in order to make accurate calculations.All Rights Reserved.

**Piping_How to find center of pipe?**

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Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Home Improvement. Job Retraining. What is the Formula for pipe fitting take off? Wiki User For 90 degree fittings divide the diameter by 2 then add quotion to original diameter for 45 degree fittings multiply. Related Questions Asked in Geometry What is the take off formula off 45 degree elbow pipe? The take off formula of a 45 degree elbow pipe, will depend on what the pipe is on. Sometimes a 45 degree pipe will need a 90 degree right angle turn to come off.

There is no one formula for fitting take offs. The general rule used for gal and black malleable fittings is on a center to center measurement to take off the ID of the pipe you are using on each end of the pipe. Example if center to center measurement is 10 feet between a 1 inch tee and a 1 inch 90 ell. The end to end measurement would be minus 2 inches for a total of 9 foot 10 inches. If you are a industrial pipe fitter there is a pipe fitters blue book that covers all this and a lot more,but the formula we use is take the size of the fitting and break it down 4 times add the second and forth dimension together and there's your take off,ex.

Asked in Plumbing How do you work out x dimensions? Then insert pipe into fitting and mark a line on pipe. Asked in Ovens and Stoves Is there a fitting off the stove to the stove pipe? Depends on the stove, but usually not. Asked in Geometry What an 8 inch 90 degree pipe fitting take off when rolled 45 degrees? Asked in Plumbing, Job Retraining What is a fitting take-off? Fitting take off is looking at plans and seeing how many valves ,tees ,and other fittings are needed for the proper installation.

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